Deen Dayal Upadhyaya

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THE answer to the problems of the world is not socialism but Hinduism. This is the only philosophy of life which considers life as a whole, and not in compartments. Here we must pot relate Hindu ideals of life to some dead ritual or to many non-Hindu practices that prevade the Hindu society. At the same time it will be a big mistake to hold that Hinduism is against modern scientific progress. Science and the machine should both be used in accordance with our social and cultural life.


Socialism is being discussed in all quarters and is being considered the most beneficial system for the people. Socialism means control of the State over all means of production and distribution. In such a situation the people are reduced to the status of labourers. There is no independent ownership. In order to establish such a socialism class struggle and bloody revolution are invoked. Efforts are also made to bring about this socialism in a peaceful manner. But as this system accepts a conflict between the individual and society and limits the freedom of the individual, under it man becomes only a part of a machine. The relation between the individual and society under such a socialism does not accord with Indian culture and tradition. We are not socialists of this type, nor are we individualists in the Western sense. Our Upanishads say that he who concentrates on the individual attains darkness, and he who worships only the collective also goes the same way. The Indian system calls for a blend of the two. Our effort is to merge the individual in the social, because the individual can die but society never.

WE are individualists and also stand for the societies. In accordance with Indian philosophy we look to the interest of society even while not ignoring the individual. Because we care for society we are 'socialists' in that sense, we are also and because we do not ignore the individual individualists. Because we do not consider the individual to be supreme it is said that we are not individualists. On the other hand we also do not think that society should rob the individual of all his free- doms and peculiarities. We are against the individual being used as a part of a machine and in that sense we are not socialists. It is our conviction that society cannot be thought of without the individual, nor can an individual have any value without society. Hence we want a synthesis of the two.

INDIA has arrived at the conclusion that it is wrong to consider the individual and society to be in mutual contradiction. Of course if there is a distortion or lack of order it is necessary to take steps to remove it. But the basic truth is that the individual and society are one and indivisible. In a cultured state of affairs the individual will think of society even while thinking of himself. If anyone thinks of achieving his own good by harming society he would be thinking on the wrong lines. This is the state of distortion, and this would also not lead to the individual's good, for the individual will have to suffer the condition in which society finds itself.

(Excerpts from the book - "Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya A Profile" edited by Sudhakar Raje.)

Compiled by Amarjeet Singh, Research Associate & Programme Coordinator, Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee Research Foundation, 9, Ashok Road, New Delhi - 110001
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